Due to high humidity, constant exposure to moisture on the floor, walls and even the ceiling, the bathroom is exposed to various harmful effects. These include the appearance of mold and fungus, the multiplication of bacteria, because of which there is an unpleasant smell, as well as the destruction of wall, floor and ceiling materials, especially if they are made of wood. The absence or poor waterproofing of the bathroom in the apartment can lead to permanent leaks. To avoid unpleasant consequences, it is necessary to perform correctly and qualitatively work on the waterproofing of the bathroom.
Types of waterproofing
Waterproofing materials are laid between the base of the surfaces of the room and the decorative finish in all areas where contact with water is possible. To determine which waterproofing is best for the bathroom, you need to consider its types.
This type refers to roll or film materials made on the basis of cardboard or synthetic fiber impregnated with bitumen. The roll is cut into separate strips, laid on the surface and heated with a gas burner, after which the material melts, firmly adhering to the floor.
Disadvantages: roll waterproofing is not suitable for use in a small unventilated room, since under these conditions it is impossible to use a gas burner. Places of joints of strips must be glued with silicone or polyurethane sealant, otherwise they will pass moisture. Inconvenience when stacking.
Advantages: In addition to those materials that need to be heated, there are hydroinsols that themselves are glued to the surface. Such materials are reliable and convenient to use. In addition, roll insulation at a cost cheaper than other types.
This is a thick composition in the form of powder, paste, mixture based on bitumen, sand or cement with the addition of various polymers.
Oble materials for waterproofing the bathroom are of two types: one-component and two-component. The first type contains water and waterproofing, and the second includes polymeric binders. Two-component waterproofing, in addition to protection from moisture, contains substances that protect the surface from the formation of fungus and mold.
Disadvantages: bitumen mastic can crack because of temperature fluctuations, it also has an unpleasant odor during application. In addition, it is worth noting the long drying time of the waterproofing layer, reaching three days. It is necessary to apply several layers, each of which must dry for at least 6-8 hours.
Advantages: coating waterproofing for a bathroom with various plasticizers and polymers has a composition that penetrates into all cracks and cracks, filling them, protecting them from penetration of water. Easy to apply. Coefficient of adhesion of the mastic can be applied to rigid, flexible surfaces. The lubricating materials are well combined with the "warm floor" system, able to withstand elevated temperatures.
Liquid waterproofing for the bathroom is used to cover the walls, floor, ceiling. It is represented by two types: liquid glass and liquid rubber. Liquid glass consists of a solution of potassium and sodium, fills the pores on the surface of concrete or wood, without forming a film. Liquid rubber is a bitumen emulsion diluted with water. Absorbed in the surface of the floor or walls, forms a reliable upper protective layer.
Disadvantages: liquid waterproofing of the floor in the bathroom is done only under the screed.
Advantages: liquid waterproofing of the floor in the bathroom is universal in relation to different types of surfaces. This material has a high coefficient of adhesion with various coatings, it is resistant to various aggressive environments, it can be used for insulation of walls or floor where there is constant contact with water.
Correct choice of waterproofing material
To get high-quality work on the application of moisture-resistant coating of the bathroom in a frame house or apartment, it is necessary to know which waterproofing to choose for the bathroom and how to properly lay it. So, the best waterproofing for the bathroom is selected according to the recommendations:
- For laying tiles on a concrete base, it is recommended to use a lubricating mastic. They are easy to use, withstand temperature changes, suitable as a basis for screed. Lubricants are also best used if the area of the treated surface does not exceed 10 sq.m.
- For use in the bathroom, regardless of the finishing material, suitable liquid rubber.
- Waterproofing of walls of a bathroom is often carried out with the help of cement-polymer compounds. This material is excellent for tiling.
- The waterproofing of the ceiling in the bathroom, like walls, can be made with liquid glass - this plastic compound forms a thin surface, which protects against moisture, fungi, mold, without heavier wall surface.
- The waterproofing of the bathroom in a wooden house is conveniently carried out with the help of roll materials, and the protection of the floors under the floor of the bathroom - with the use of mastic.
- Waterproofing plasterboard in the bathroom is carried out with the use of lubricating compositions, on top of which is applied tile glue and directly the tile itself. Mastic is also ideal for covering walls with plaster in the bathroom.
It is always possible to combine different types of materials. For example, to cover a large area of the floor surface, roll insulation is used, and for walls of the same bathroom - coating or liquid insulation.
Laying of waterproofing
Before you make a waterproofing in the bathroom, you must carefully prepare the room: clear of dust and debris, free of plumbing and furniture. Oily and oily stains are removed by special means.
Stacking on walls
The waterproofing of walls in the bathroom begins with the removal of the old coating to concrete. Then it is necessary to perform the work stages:
- The walls and ceiling in the bathroom are checked for flatness of the surface with a level. If there are significant deviations from the level, they must be levele
d with plaster.
- Walls, ceiling, all corners are treated with an antiseptic.
- A waterproofing mortar is prepared in exact accordance with the instructions, avoiding the addition of any additional components.
- The application of waterproofing in the bathroom should be carried out on pre-wetted walls for better adhesion to the mastic.
- Waterproofing is applied to the walls by vertical or horizontal movements with a wide brush, close to the surface.
- The walls in the bathroom are covered with a second layer of waterproofing.
Thorough sealing should be subjected to the location of the abutment of the bath against the wall. Because of difficult access to them, you should use sealing cords or tapes, which you need to put in the seam between the bathroom and the wall.
After finishing the finishing works to ensure high-quality waterproofing, it is necessary to seal the joints between the tiles with silicone or polyurethane.
On the floor
Waterproofing the floor in the bathroom under the tile, similar to the treatment of walls, begins with the removal of the old coating to concrete. If the floor is uneven, you need to fill it with a level. Then the following actions are performed:
- On the surface of the floor, apply the primer mixture with a roller. All hard-to-reach places (corners, pipe outlets, etc.) are treated with a thick solution with a brush. After drying, another layer is applied.
- Then you can start directly the device of waterproofing in the bathroom. The treatment is done with a wide brush, starting from the corners, the joints between the walls and the floor, the exit points of the pipes.
- While the mastic is not dried, a sealing tape is placed on the treated joints. In this case, you need to ensure that it was without seams, hiccups, folds. The docking points must be overlapped with a width of 5-7 mm with obligatory coating of mastic. In the same way, it is necessary to process the angles of each of the walls to a height of 15-20 cm.
- On top of the tape is laid another layer of polymer waterproofing.
- The waterproofing of the bathroom under the tile on the floor is laid in a uniform thick layer, which must be two or three. Each of them must dry before laying the next one.
After 24 hours you can begin to finish the floor with tiles. After finishing the finishing work, it is necessary to process the joints between the tiles with a silicone sealant.
In addition to the lubricating mastic, it is possible to use impregnating compounds, for example, to treat the floor with liquid glass. It penetrates into concrete, hardening it and imparting water repellent properties. In order for the composition to crystallize faster, it is necessary to wet the previous layer between the application of each of the layers.
Bathroom waterproofing in a wooden house
The waterproofing of the floor and walls in the bathroom of the wooden house can combine not only the treatment with water-repellent compounds, but also the use of water-resistant wood for finishing.
Waterproofing plasterboard in the bathroom is not required if you use a moisture-resistant material or aquapanels. They do not allow moisture to pass through, it is only necessary to make the joints treatment with a sealant or glue.
The waterproofing of the bathroom in a private house made of wood is carried out with special care in those places that are subject to constant interaction with water: the ceiling, the walls above the shower, near the sink, toilet, around the bath and the entire floor surface. For the waterproofing of the ceiling, a film material or a conventional polyethylene film attached by a construction stapler, as well as a lubricating mastic, can be used. Without fail, a vapor barrier material must be attached to the beams above the ceiling.
The waterproofing of the wooden floor in the bathroom is carried out on two levels: on the logs under the rough flooring and under the screed before laying the floor covering. Many experts agree that it is better to use roll material at the same time, and apply corners, pipe exits and sewage openings with a coating composition, with a wall application of 20-30 cm, by treating the edges with a sealing tape. Sealing joints between the joints of strips of roll mastic should be done with the help of glue.
Thus, a qualitatively made waterproofing in the bathroom with your own hands will avoid a lot of problems associated with constant exposure to water and high humidity in the bathroom, and a wide choice of materials will help create a comfortable atmosphere.